THE HUMAN AND THE POSTHUMAN
‘Inventing the Human’
University of Melbourne, Hybrid Conference
Conference, conversations, provocations, roundtables, and exhibition
What does it mean to be Human in the 21st century?
The Human and the Posthuman
From the 18th until the 20th century, challenges to social and political injustice were commonly carried out in the name of Enlightenment humanism and human rights, understood in summary form as liberal humanism, which proposes that ‘man . . . is the free, unconstrained author of meaning and action, the origin of history.’ During the 20th century, amplifying important strands of thought already evident in Romanticism, the category of the human was subject to critique from feminism, postcolonialism, queer theory, disability studies, and ecology and animal studies. More recently, advances in neuroscience, cognitive science, and biopolitics, and developments in artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, and neurotechnologies have reframed terms previously thought constitutive of the human—such as reason, creativity, empathy, autonomy (self-determination); and uniqueness (measured by our distance from machines and animals). This brings us to the posthuman, a historical phase imagined by Mary Shelley in The Last Man (1826), hoped for by Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-85), and predicted by Foucault in Les mots et les choses (1966) as a time when ‘man would be erased, like a face drawn in sand at the edge of the sea’—a formulation made poignant by the unfolding disaster of climate change. As the humanities, creative arts, and social and political sciences begin to reimagine themselves as post-humanities, we believe it is now urgent:
- to complicate debate, by canvasing the range of European thought on this topic, in which liberal humanism is a single and often not a dominant stream
- to broaden discussions, by including in the conversation non-European, particularly indigenous and southern hemisphere, traditions and
- to resist simplistic accounts of cultural/social change, by mapping encounters and negotiations between different traditions, understandings, and discourses of the human, with the aim of exploring not just what can be dispatched but what should be carried into the future.